Thursday, September 06, 2007

Quantum Freewill, the Breath and Spirit of God and a Shared Concept in Biblical/American Indian Theology



I just awoke from a dream and decided to set this all down in a post:


Ecclesiastes 3 (King James Version)

Ecclesiastes 3

1To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven:

2A time to be born, and a time to die; a time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which is planted;

3A time to kill, and a time to heal; a time to break down, and a time to build up;

4A time to weep, and a time to laugh; a time to mourn, and a time to dance;

5A time to cast away stones, and a time to gather stones together; a time to embrace, and a time to refrain from embracing;

6A time to get, and a time to lose; a time to keep, and a time to cast away;

7A time to rend, and a time to sew; a time to keep silence, and a time to speak;

8A time to love, and a time to hate; a time of war, and a time of peace.

9What profit hath he that worketh in that wherein he laboureth?

10I have seen the travail, which God hath given to the sons of men to be exercised in it.

11He hath made every thing beautiful in his time: also he hath set the world in their heart, so that no man can find out the work that God maketh from the beginning to the end.

12I know that there is no good in them, but for a man to rejoice, and to do good in his life.

13And also that every man should eat and drink, and enjoy the good of all his labour, it is the gift of God.

14I know that, whatsoever God doeth, it shall be for ever: nothing can be put to it, nor any thing taken from it: and God doeth it, that men should fear before him.

15That which hath been is now; and that which is to be hath already been; and God requireth that which is past.

16And moreover I saw under the sun the place of judgment, that wickedness was there; and the place of righteousness, that iniquity was there.

17I said in mine heart, God shall judge the righteous and the wicked: for there is a time there for every purpose and for every work.

18I said in mine heart concerning the estate of the sons of men, that God might manifest them, and that they might see that they themselves are beasts.

19For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them: as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that a man hath no preeminence above a beast: for all is vanity.

20All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all turn to dust again.

21Who knoweth the spirit of man that goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast that goeth downward to the earth?

22Wherefore I perceive that there is nothing better, than that a man should rejoice in his own works; for that is his portion: for who shall bring him to see what shall be after him?

_______________________________

These are some heavy thoughts with heavy implications. There are many great theological points and observations and even spiritual dynamics in this one passage. It tells us a good deal about freewill and God's "purpose" for us as individuals. But it also tells us a great deal about theological truth and the sovereignty of God.

Contemplate this:

"yea, they have all one breath; so that a man hath no preeminence above a beast"

Ruach (Ruah) is Hebrew for 'breath,' and represents spirit- literally, the breath of God, synonymous with life. The root of the word is related to words meaning voice, thunder, and wind.

(hmmm this sounds very much like the American Indian concept of "The Great Spirit" or the spirit/medicine power that emantes from and/or is synonymous with the Creator. It is the power and presence called for in prayers.)

“The Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life.”
(Job 33:4)

The Great Spirit is a conception of a supreme being prevalent among Native American and First Nations cultures. Also called Wakan Tanka in Lakota, The Creator, or The Great Maker in English and Gitchi Manitou in Algonquian and Provider in Cherokee. In Cherokee, the personal name of God was often rendered as Yehowa. Does that sound familiar? Some claim that this name is a syncretistic corruption. Others claim that this is an ancient usage that came with the Cherokees from the beginning.

The Great Spirit is generally considered equivalent in description to God of the main monotheistic religions (such as Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Sikhism). These main religions often describe a being who is all-powerful, all-knowing, and all-loving. They believe that God speaks through human intermediaries and issues spiritual laws that human beings are to follow, and an afterlife is promised. However the Great Spirit differs in that his panentheistic nature is especially emphasised; he is embodied in everything. This "embodiment in everything" IS actually a Biblical concept as well- as understood in the Hebrew term ruach. This term, ruach, can actually be thought of to include everything, in that afterall everything originates from the creative power of God. In American Indian thought, the concept of ruach is expanded a bit to allow for not only intelligent life, but all life and all matter which afterall does have at least the sentience of an acknowledgment of the sovereignty of God... because the abscence of God is NOTHINGNESS... no matter would exist... one atom would not be formed. Creation itself gives testimony and witness from its existence, its order, its balance, its nurturing quality, the fact that it contains intelligence and the existence of morality and/or moral order such as it is:

Romans 1:20
20 For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse (for not seeing and/or acknowledging the sovereignty of God).

The only thing missing from American Indian theology was the Christ. History could have been much different for them if the people "evangelizing" them had generally been better living examples with better theological understanding themselves and also better understanding of those whom they sought to teach about God.

The Spirit of YHVH is YHVH Himself...

In the Tanakh, the word ruach generally means wind, breath, mind, spirit. In a living creature (nephesh chayah), the ruach is the breath, whether of animals (Gen 7:15; Psa 104:25, 29) or mankind (Isa 42:5; Ezek 37:5). God is the creator of ruach: "The ruach of God (from God) is in my nostrils" (Job 27:3). In God's hand is the ruach of all mankind (Job 12:10; Isa 42:5). In mankind, ruach further denotes the principle of life that possesses reason, will, and conscience. The ruach imparts the divine image to man, and constitutes the animating dynamic which results in man's nephesh as the subject of personal life.

When applied to God, the word Ruach indicates creative activity (Gen 1:2) and active power (Isa 40:13). The Spirit of God also works in providence (Job 33:4; Psa 104:30), in redemption (Ezek 11:19; Ezek 36:26-27), in upholding and guiding his chosen ones (Neh 9:20; Psa 143:10; Hag 2:5), and in the empowering of the Messiah (Isa 11:2; Isa 42:1; Isa 61:1).

In short, as the ruach is to the created nephesh, so the Ruach Elohim is to God Himself, part of God and identified with God. Ruach may be understood as the Author of the animating dynamic of the created order, the underlying Principle of creation, and the One that imparts the nephesh to the entire universe.

Ancient Israelite Concepts of Soul




The Bible gives few clues to the ancient Israelite idea of the soul or spirit. Three words which over time developed the meaning of "soul" are present in Tanakh: Neshamah, Nefesh, and Ruah. Tracing the evolution of these terms gives us some idea of the ancient Israelites' beliefs regarding the soul.

In the Creation story, we read of God blowing a "breath of life" into the man of earth and dust (Genesis 2:7). The word used is a form of the Hebrew root indicating breath. Although this "neshamah" later becomes associated with the soul, the word here only describes the element that animates a body. This animating element is not, in early biblical tradition, separate from the body in life, nor does it possess any personality.

Similarly, ruah is the animating force from God. Most often used as "wind," ruahmay also be used as "breath." "God said, 'My breath [ruhi] will not govern man forever, since he is flesh…'" (Genesis 6:3). Here, we see the added element of transience: The ruah ends its association with the mortal body at death.

The word nefesh is often used to mean "person" or "living being". In the Torah, however, animals may also possess this life force--a "nefesh behemah." The term nefesh is particularly associated with blood, as in "the life [nefesh] of the flesh is in the blood" (Leviticus 17:11).

Nefesh does reflect a personal dimension. It may be used in the sense of "self" (including "himself"). Nefesh is also associated with personal desire or attraction. One's nefesh may cleave to someone (as in the case of Shehem's yearning for Dinah, Jacob's daughter), or to evil (see Proverbs 21:10). In a later example of this usage, a person of considerable appetite is called "ba'al [possessor of] nefesh" (Proverbs 23:2). In all of these usages, the nefesh is connected to the body and its material wants.

In later books of the Bible, the soul (using all three terms) is mentioned apart from the body and as more than just an animating spirit. This subtle evolution of meaning reflects the growth of the idea of what we call the soul--the unique, everlasting, intangible part of a person. In the stunning poem that serves as the centerpiece of the last chapter of Ecclesiastes, the death of a person is described as occurring when "… the dust returns to the ground where it had been and the ruah returns to the God who had given it" (12:7). While previously we saw the life-breath leaving the body at death, here we see it as a separate entity that returns to God, rather than simply disappearing.




Nephesh

Appendix 13 to The Companion Bible


The word nephesh occurs 754 times in the Hebrew Old Testament.

In the A.V. and R.V. it is translated "soul" 472 times, while in the other 282 places it is represented by forty-four different words or phrases. In fifty-three of these places there is a marginal rendering which calls attention to the fact that the word is "nephesh", while in 229 passages the English reader has hitherto been left in ignorance of the fact. The English word "soul" is in every occurrence the rendering of the Hebrew nephesh, except in Job 30:15 and Isa. 57:16.

Though, with these two exceptions, the English word "soul" always represents the Hebrew nephesh, nephesh is not always translated "soul".

This Appendix will exhibit all the varieties of translation; and, while it is not intended to teach either Theology or Psychology, it will give such information as will enable every Bible reader to form his own views and come to his own conclusions on an important subject, about which there is such great controversy.

This can be done only by giving every occurrence of the Hebrew word nephesh.

The usage of the word nephesh by the Holy Spirit in the Word of God is the only guide to the true understanding of it.

It will be seen that the word "soul", in its theological sense, does not cover all the ground, or properly represent the Hebrew word "nephesh". The English word "soul" is from the Latin solus = alone or sole, because the maintenance of man as a living organism, and all that affects his health and well-being, is the one sole or main thing in common with every living thing which the LORD God has made. The correct Latin word for the theological term "soul" (or nephesh) is anima; and this is from the Greek anemos = air or breath, because it is this which keeps the whole in life and in being.

The first occurrence of nephesh is in Gen. 1:20, "the moving creature that hath life (nephesh)". (*1)

The following are twelve classifications of nephesh :

I. Nephesh is used of the lower animals only, in twenty-two passages, and is rendered in nine different ways :--

1.

"creature"

Gen. 1:21, 24; 2:19; 9:10, 12. Lev. 11:46.

7

2.

"thing"

Lev. 11:10. Ezek. 47:9.

2

3.

"life"

Gen. 1:20, 30.

2

4.

"the life"

Gen. 9:4. Deut. 12:23. Prov. 12:10.

4

5.

"beast"

Lev. 24:18. (See margin.)

3

6.

"the soul"

Job 12:10. (See margin.)

1

7.

"breath"

Job 41:21.

1

8.

"fish"

Isa. 19:10. (See margin.)

1

9.

"her"

Jer. 2:24.

1




22

II. Nephesh is used of the Lower Animals and Man in seven passages, and rendered in three different ways :--

1.

"creature"

Gen. 9:15, 16.

2

2.

"the life"

Lev. 17:11, 14.

4

3.

"soul"

Num. 31:28.

1




7

III. Nephesh is used of Man, as an individual person, in 53 passages, and is rendered in six different ways :--

1.

"soul"

Gen. 2:7; 12:5; 46:15, 18, 22, 25, 26, 27. Ex. 1:5; 12:4. Lev. 22:11. Ps. 25:20. Prov. 10:3; 11:25, 30; 14:25; 19:15; 22:23 (R.V. life); 25:25; 27:7. Jer. 38:16. Lam. 3:25. Ezek. 13:18, 20; 18:4

34

2.

"person"

Gen. 14:21; 36:6 (R.V. souls). Ex. 16:16. Lev. 27:2. Num. 31:40, 46. Deut. 10:22. Jer. 43:6; 52:29, 30. Ezek. 16:5; 27:13.

14

3.

"persons"

Num. 31:35.

1

4.

"any"

Deut. 24:7.

1

5.

"man"

2Kings 12:4

1

6.

"and"

1Chron. 5:21

1


Not rendered

Num. 31:35 (Lit. "and the soul of man...were 32,000 souls.")

1




53

IV. Nephesh is used of Man, as exercising certain powers, or performing certain acts (may be often well rendered by emphatic pronouns), in ninety-six passages, and with eleven different renderings :--

1.

"soul"

Gen. 27:4, 19, 25, 31. Lev. 4:2; 5:1, 2, 4, 15, 17; 6:2; 7:18, 20, 21, 27; 16:29, 31; 17:12, 15; 20:6, 25; 22:6; 23:27, 30, 32. Num. 15:27, 28, 30; 19:22; 29:7; 30:2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. Deut. 13:6. Judg. 5:21. 1Sam. 1:26; 17:55; 18:3; 20:3, 17; 25:26. 2Sam. 11:11; 14:19. 2Kings 2:2, 4, 6; 4:30. Job 16:4; 31:30 (R.V. life). Ps. 35:13; 120:6. Prov. 6:32; 8:36; 11:17; 13:2; 15:32; 16:17; 19:8, 16; 20:2 (R.V. life); 21:23; 22:5; 29:24. Ecc. 4:8; 6:2. Isa. 51:23; 58:3, 5. Jer. 4:19. Ezek. 4:14. Mic. 6:7.

81

2.

"man"

Ex. 12:16.

1

3.

"any"

Lev. 2:1.

1

4.

"one"

Lev. 4:27.

1

5.

"yourselves"

Lev. 11:43, 44. Jer. 17:21.

3

6.

"person"

Num. 5:6.

1

7.

"themselves"

Est. 9:31. Isa. 46:2.

2

8.

"himself"

Job 18:4 (R.V. thyself); 32:2.

2

9.

"he"

Ps. 105:18.

1

10.

"herself"

Jer. 3:11.

1

11.

"Himself"

Jer. 51:14. Amos 6:8 (used of Jehovah).

2




96

V. Nephesh is used of Man, as possessing animal appetites and desires, in twenty-two passages, rendered in five different ways :--

1.

"soul"

Num. 11:6 (dried away). Deut. 12:15 (lusteth), 20 (longeth to eat flesh), 20 (lusteth after), 21 (lusteth); 14:26 (lusteth), 26 (desireth); 21:5 (loatheth). 1Sam. 2:16 (desireth). Job 6:7 (refused); 33:20 (abhorreth). Ps. 107:18 (abhorreth). Prov. 6:30 (hunger); 13:25 (satisfying). Isa. 29:8 (empty), 8 (hath appetite). Mic. 7:1 (desired...figs).

17

2.

"pleasure"

Deut. 23:24.

1

3.

"lust"

Ps. 78:18.

1

4.

"appetite"

Prov. 23:2. Ecc. 6:7.

2

5.

"greedy"

Isa. 56:11.

1




22

VI. Nephesh is used of Man, as exercising mental faculties, and manifesting certain feelings and affections and passions, in 231 passages, and rendered in twenty different ways :--

1.

"soul"

Gen. 34:3 (clave), 8 (longeth); 42:21 (anguish); 49:6 (come not). Lev. 26:11 (not abhor), 15 (abhor), 30 (abhor), 43 (abhor). Num. 21:4 (discouraged). Deut. 4:9 (keep), 29 (seek); 6:5 (love); 10:12 (serve); 11:13 (love), 18 (lay up in); 13:3 (love); 26:16 (keep); 30:2 (return), 6 (love), 10 (turn). Josh. 22:5 (serve); 23:14 (know). Judg. 10:16 (Used of God) (grieved); 16:16 (vexed). 1Sam. 1:10 (bitterness of), 15 (poured out); 18:1 (knit with), 1 (loved as); 20:4 (desireth); 23:20 (desire); 30:6 (grieved). 2Sam. 5:8 (hated). 1Kings 2:4 (walk); 8:48 (return); 11:37 (desired). 2Kings 4:27 (vexed); 23:3 (keep), 25 (turned). 1Chron. 22:19 (seek). 2Chron. 6:38 (return); 15:12 (seek); 34:31 (keep). Job 3:20 (bitter); 7:11 (bitterness); 9:21 (know) (R.V. myself); 10:1 (weary), 1 (bitterness); 14:22 (mourn); 19:2 (vex); 21:25 (bitterness); 23:13 (Used of God) (desireth); 24:12 (wounded); 27:2 (vexed); 30:16 (poured out), 25 (grieved). Ps. 6:3 (sore vexed); 11:5 (Used of God) (hateth); 13:2 (take counsel); 19:7 (converting); 24:4 (not lifted up); 25:1 (lifted up), 13 (dwell at ease); 31:7 (in adversities), 9 (consumed with grief); 33:20 (waiteth); 34:2 (boast); 35:9 (be joyful); 42:1 (panteth), 2 (thirsteth), 4 (pour our), 5 (cast down), 6 (cast down), 11 (cast down); 43:5 (cast down); 44:25 (bowed down); 62:1 (waileth), 5 (wait); 63:1 (thirsteth), 5 (satisfied), 8 (followeth hard); 69:10 (chastened); 77:2 (refused comfort); 84:2 (longeth); 86:4 (rejoiced), 4 (lift up); 88:3 (full of troubles); 94:19 (delight); 103:1, 2, 22; 104:1, 35 (bless); 107:5 (fainted), 9 (satisfied), 9 (filled with goodness), 26 (melted); 116:7 (return to rest); 119:20 (longing), 25 (cleaveth unto the dust), 28 (melteth for heaviness), 81 (fainteth), 129 (keep), 167 (kept); 123:4 (filled with scorning); 130:5 (wait), 6 (waiteth); 131:2 (quieted); 138:3 (strengthened); 139:14 (knoweth); 143:6 (thirsteth), 8 (lifted up), 11 (bring out of trouble), 12 (afflict); 146:1 (praise). Prov. 2:10 (knowledge pleasant); 3:22 (be life to); 13:4 (desireth), 4 (made fat), 19; 16:24 (sweet to); 19:2 (without knowledge), 18 (spare) (R.V. heart); 21:10 (desireth); 22:25 (get a snare to); 24:14 (wisdom unto); 25:13 (refresheth); 29:17 (give delight). Ecc. 2:24 (enjoy good); 6:3 (not filled); 7:28 (seeketh). Song 1:7; 3:1, 2, 3, 4 (loveth); 5:6 (failed); 6:12 (Used of God) (made me like chariots). Isa. 1:14 (hateth); 26:8 (desire), 9 (desire); 32:6 (made empty); 38:15 (bitterness of); 42:1 (Used of God); 55:2 (delight); 58:10 (drawn out), 10 (afflicted), 11 (satisfied); 61:10 (joyful); 66:3 (delighteth). Jer. 4:31 (wearied); 5:9, 29 (avenged); 6:8 (depart), 16 (find rest); 9:9 (Used of God) (avenged); 12:7 (dearly beloved of); 13:17 (shall weep); 14:19 (loathed); 31:12 (watered), 14, 25 (satiated), 25 (sorrowful); 32:41 (Used of God) (whole); 50:19 (satisfied). Lam. 3:17 (removed), 20 (humbled), 24 (saith). Ezek. 7:19 (satisfied); 24:21 (pitieth). Jonah 2:7 (fainted). Hab. 2:4 (not upright). Zech. 11:8 (lothed), 8 (abhorred).

176

2.

"mind"

Gen. 23:8 (your). Deut. 18:6 (desire); 28:65 (sorrow). 1Sam. 2:35 (Used of God). 2 Sam. 17:8 (chafed). 2Kings 9:15. 1Chron. 28:9 (willing). Jer. 15:1 (Used of God). Ezek. 23:17 (R.V. soul), 18 (Used of God) (R.V. soul), 18 (Used of God) (soul), 22 (R.V. soul), 28 (R.V. soul) (alienated); 24:25 (R.V. heart) (set); 36:5 (R.V. soul) (despiteful).

15

3.

"heart"

Ex. 23:9. Lev. 26:16. Deut. 24:15. 1Sam. 2:23 (grieve). 2Sam. 3:21 (desireth). Ps. 10:3 (desire). Prov. 23:7 (R.V. himself); 28:25 (proud heart) (R.V. greedy spirit); 31:6 (heavy heart.) (R.V. bitter in soul). Jer. 42:20 (dissembled) (R.V. souls). Lam. 3:51 (affected) (R.V. soul). Ezek. 25:6 (rejoiced) (R.V. soul), 15 (despiteful) (R.V. soul); 27:31 (bitterness). Hos. 4:8 (set).

15

4.

"hearty"

Prov. 27:9 (counsel).

1

5.

"will"

Deut. 21:14 (she will). Ps. 27:12; 41:2. Ezek. 16:27.

4

6.

"desire"

Ecc. 6:9. Jer. 22:27; 44:14. Mic. 7:3 (R.V. soul). Hab. 2:5.

5

7.

"pleasure"

Ps. 105:22. Jer. 34:16.

2

8.

"lust"

Ex. 15:9.

1

9.

"angry"

Judg. 18:25.

1

10.

"discontented"

1Sam. 22:2.

1

11.

"thyself"

Est. 4:13.

1

12.

"myself"

Ps. 131:2.

1

13.

"he"

Prov. 16:26 (R.V. appetite).

1

14.

"his own"

Prov. 14:10 (R.V. its own).

1

15.

"Him"

Prov. 6:16 (Used of God)

1

16.

"himself"

Jon. 4:8.

1

17.

"herself"

Isa. 5:14 (R.V. her desire).

1

18.

"yourselves"

Jer. 37:9.

1

19.

"man"

Isa. 49:7.

1

20.

"so would we have it"

Ps. 35:25.

1




231

VII. Nephesh is used of Man, (a) as being "cut off" by God; (b) and as being slain of killed by man, in fifty-four passages : and is rendered in eight different ways :--

(a)

Soul cut off by God, in twenty-two passages, and rendered:




"soul"

Gen. 17:14. Ex. 12:15, 19; 31:14. Lev. 7:20, 21, 25, 27; 17:10; 18:29; 19:8; 20:6; 22:3; 23:29, 30. Num. 9:13; 15:30, 31; 19:13, 20. Ezek. 18:4, 20.

22

(b)

Slain or killed by man, in thirty-two passages, rendered in eight different ways :--



1.

"soul"

Josh. 10:28, 30, 32, 35, 37, 37, 39; 11:11. Jer. 2:34. Ezek. 13:19; 22:25, 27.

12

2.

"person"

Deut. 27:25. Josh. 20:3, 9. 1Sam. 22:22. Prov. 28:17. Ezek. 17:17; 33:6.

7

3.

"any"

Lev. 24:17.

1

4.

"any person"

Num. 31:19; 35:11, 15, 30, 30.

5

5.

"him"

Gen. 37:21. Deut. 19:6; 22:26.

3

6.

"mortally"

Deut. 19:11.

1

7.

"life"

2Sam. 14:7.

1

8.

"thee"

Jer. 40:14, 15.

2




54

VIII. Nephesh is used of Man as being mortal, subject to death of various kinds, from which it can be saved and delivered and life prolonged, in 243 passages, rendered in eleven different ways :--

1.

"soul"

Gen. 12:13; 19:20. Ex. 30:12, 15, 16. Lev. 17:11, 11 (R.V. life). Num. 16:38 (R.V. lives); 31:50. 1Sam. 24:11; 25:29, 29, 29; 26:21 (R.V. life). 2Sam. 4:9. 1Kings 1:29; 17:21, 22. Job 7:15; 27:8. Ps. 3:2; 6:4; 7:2, 5; 11:1; 17:13; 22:20, 29; 23:3; 25:20; 26:9; 33:19; 34:22; 35:3, 4, 12, 17; 40:14; 41:4; 49:8, 15; 54:3, 4; 55:18; 56:6, 13; 57:4; 59:3; 63:9; 66:9, 16; 69:1, 18; 70:2; 71:10, 13, 23; 72:13, 14; 74:19; 78:50; 86:2, 14; 88:14; 94:21; 97:10; 106:15; 109:20, 31; 116:4, 8; 119:109; 175; 120:2; 121:7; 124:4, 5, 7; 141:8; 142:4, 7; 143:3. Prov. 18:7; 24:12; 29:10. Isa. 3:9; 10:18; 44:20; 53:10, 11, 12; 55:3. Jer. 4:10; 20:13; 26:19; 38:17, 20; 44:7; 51:6 (R.V. life), 45 (R.V. yourselves). Lam. 1:11, 16, 19; 2:12; 3:58. Ezek. 3:19, 21; 13:18, 19; 14:14, 20; 18:27; 33:5, 9. Hos. 9:4 (R.V. appetite). Jon. 2:5. Hab. 2:10.

127

2.

"life, lives"

Gen. 9:5, 5; 19:17, 19; 32:30; 35:18; 44:30, 30. Ex. 4:19; 21:23, 23, 30. Num. 35:31. Deut. 19:21, 21; 24:6. Josh. 2:13, 14; 9:24. Judg. 5:18; 9:17; 12:3; 18:25, 25. Ruth 4:15. 1Sam. 19:5, 11; 20:1; 22:23, 23; 23:15; 26:24, 24; 28:9, 21. 2Sam. 1:9; 4:8; 16:11; 18:13; 19:5, 5, 5, 5; 23:7. 1Kings 1:12, 12; 2:23; 3:11; 19:2, 2, 3, 4, 10, 14; 20:31, 39, 39, 42, 42. 2Kings 1:13, 13, 14; 7:7; 10:24, 24. 1Chron. 1:11. Est. 7:3, 7; 8:11; 9:16. Job 2:4, 6; 6:11 (R.V. be patient); 13:14; 31:39. Ps. 31:13; 38:12. Prov. 1:18, 19; 6:26; 7:23; 13:3, 8. Isa. 15:4 (R.V. soul); 43:4. Jer. 4:30; 11:16; 19:7, 9; 21:7, 9; 22:25; 34:20, 21; 38:2, 16; 39:18; 44:30, 40; 45:5; 46:26; 48:6; 49:37. Lam. 2:19; 5:9. Ezek. 32:10. Jon. 1:14; 4:3.

110

3.

"ghost"

Job 11:20. Jer. 15:9.

2

4.

"person"

2Sam. 14:14 (R.V. life).

1

5.

"tablets"

Isa. 3:20 (R.V. perfume boxes) (Heb. "houses of the soul" = boxes of scent for the nose).

1

6.

"deadly"

Ps. 17:9 (Heb. "enemies against my nephesh").

1

7.

"himself"

1Kings 19:4. Amos 2:14, 15.

3

8.

"me"

Num. 23:10. Judg. 16:30. 1Kings 20:32.

3

9.

"they"

Job 36:14.

1

10.

"themselves"

Isa. 47:14.

1

11.

"yourselves"

Deut. 4:15. Josh. 23:11.

2




243

IX. Nephesh is used of man, as actually dead, in thirteen passages, and is rendered in three different ways :--

1.

"the dead"

Lev. 19:28; 21:1; 22:4. Num. 5:2; 6:11.

5

2.

"dead body"

Num. 9:6, 7, 10.

3

3.

"body"

Lev. 21:11. Num. 6:6; 19:11, 13. Hag. 2:13.

5




13

X. Nephesh, in thirteen passages (all rendered "soul"), is spoken of as going to a place described by four different words, rendered as shown below :--

i. "sheol" = THE grave (as distinct from keber, A grave), gravedom (or the dominion of death), in five passages, rendered in this connection in two different ways :--

1. "grave". Ps. 30:3 (R.V. "Sheol"); 89:48 (R.V. "Sheol", marg. grave). (Cp. Ps. 49:15). (2)
2. "hell". Ps.
16:10 (R.V. "Sheol"); 86:13 (marg. grave. R.V. "pit", marg. lowest Sheol). Prov. 23:14 (R.V. "Sheol", marg. the grave). (3)

ii. "shachath" = a pit (for taking wild beasts); hence, a grave. The Septuagint and New Testament take it in the sense of corruption; but, if so, not implying putridity, but destruction. Occurs in six passages, and is rendered in two different ways :--

1. "pit". Job 33:18, 28, 30. Ps. 35:7. Isa. 38:17. (5)
2. "grave". Job 33:22 (R.V. "pit"). (1)

iii. "shuchah" = a deep pit (cp. all the occurrences, Prov. 22:14; 23:27. Jer. 2:6; 18:20, 22). In one passage only :--

1. Pit. Jer. 18:20. (1)

iv. "dumah" = silence. Ps. 94:17. (1)

Total = 754



(*1) It is used of the lower animals four times before it is used of man; and out of the first thirteen times in Genesis, it is used ten times of the lower animals.

32 comments:

Charles Seper said...

Interesting stuff. Nothing to debate really.

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